Author: Spiros Kakos
Main Thesis: Harmonia Philosophica [English] (Credo quia absurdum!!)
The limits of science
Religion and Science unification - Towards religional science
The Dark Side of Technology
The dictatorship of the science of psychiatry
The Source of Ethics
It is characteristic that the "priest" of modern atheism, Richard Dawkins, is a professor at the College of St. Mary!!! So much "war" is going on between religion and science, that religion has created a college for its greatest enemy to teach...
1. Science for "how", Religion for "why"
2. Logic arguments for metaphysics
Metaphysics - A definition
"Believe" - A definition
2.1 A higher purpose exists
2.2 The First Cause argument
- The cause of existence for something can lie outside of (so we talk for “possible” things) it or inside it (so we talk for “necessary” things). A child is a “possible” thing: it requires an “outside” cause to exist (i.e. its parents). God (as defined by religions) or the ever-existing universe (as described by Heracletus) are “necessary things (i.e. the cause for their existence lies inside them).
- Something can exist or not-exist. Something exists only if there is “sufficient reason” for it to exist. This is the only way that existence can be justified against the possibility of non-existence. A child can exist or not-exist. If it exists, it does so because of a sufficient cause: its parents and their decision to make children.
- (1) + (2) => Universe requires a cause of existence.
- Nothing can be created from nothing. If at some moment (i.e. before the Big Bang) there was nothing, then nothing should exist now either. So the universe either exists for ever or was created at some point.
- If the universe existed for ever, it does not need an “outside” cause for existence – it is “necessary”. Otherwise it requires an “outside” cause for justification of its existence.
- All the things we observe are “possible” (i.e. they require an “outside” cause to exist). For example I exist because of my parents. This text exists because I write it.
- The universe exists and is the sum of all things that exist in it.
- (6) + (7) => Universe is “possible”, so it needs an “outside” cause to exist. This cause I call “First Cause”.
- Everything has a cause. So the first cause must also have a cause.
- If the first cause has an outside cause, then we end up with an infinite series of causes => No “first cause” exists.
- The conclusion (10) is not correct, since it does not agree with (8).
- (8) + (11) => The first cause does not need an outside cause for existence. The first cause is “necessary”.
2.3 "A priori" and "a posteriori" knowledge
2.4 Ontological arguments
(Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/G%C3%B6del’s_ontological_proof - OLD version)
We first assume the following axiom:
Axiom 1: It is possible to single out positive properties from among all properties. Gödel defines a positive property rather vaguely: “Positive means positive in the moral aesthetic sense (independently of the accidental structure of the world)… It may also mean pure attribution as opposed to privation (or containing privation)” (Gödel 1995)
We then assume that the following three conditions hold for all positive properties (which can be summarized by saying “the positive properties form an ultrafilter”):
- Axiom 2: If P is positive and P entails Q, then Q is positive.
- Axiom 3: If P1, P2, P3, …, Pn are positive properties, then the property (P1 AND P2 AND P3 … AND Pn) is positive as well.
- Axiom 4: If P is a property, then either P or its negation is positive, but not both.
Finally, we assume:
Axiom 5: Necessary existence is a positive property (Pos(NE)). This mirrors the key assumption in the respective Anselm’s ontological argument.
Now we define a new property G: if x is an object in some possible world, then G(x) is true if and only if P(x) is true in that same world for all positive properties P. G is called the “God-like” property. An object x that has the God-like property is called God.
From axioms 1 through 4, Gödel argued that in some possible world there exists God. He used a sort of modal plenitude principle to argue this from the logical consistency of Godlikeness: in a possible world it is certain that an object with all positive properties does exist. Note that Godlikeness is itself positive, since it is the conjunction of the (infinitely many) positive properties.
Then, Gödel defined essences: if x is an object in some world, then the property P is said to be an essence of x if P(x) is true in that world and if P entails all other properties that x has in that world. We also say that x necessarily exists if for every essence P the following is true: in every possible world, there is an element y with P(y).
Since necessary existence is positive, it must follow from Godlikeness. Moreover, Godlikeness is an essence of God, since it entails all positive properties, and any nonpositive property is the negation of some positive property, so God cannot have any nonpositive properties. Since any Godlike object is necessarily existent, it
follows that any Godlike object in one world is a Godlike object in all worlds, by the definition of necessary existence. Given the existence of a Godlike object in one world, proven above, we may conclude that there is a Godlike object in every possible world, as required.
In simpler words: Since a Godlike object exists in ONE possible world, then it necessarily exists in ALL OTHER possible world (since "necessary existence" is one of its positive properties).
From these hypotheses, it is also possible to prove that there is only one God in each world: by identity of indiscernibles, no two distinct objects can have precisely the same properties, and so there can only be one object in each world that possesses property G. Gοdel did not attempt to do so however, as he purposely limited his proof to the issue of existence, rather than uniqueness. This was more to preserve the logical precision of the argument than due to a penchant for polytheism. This uniqueness proof will only work if one supposes that the
positiveness of a property is independent of the object to which it is applied, a claim which some have considered to be suspect.
2.5 The Design argument
2.6 Other arguments
Philosophy and the "Being"
3. Logic and not only faith
And we must note that at least the ones that argue that there is a purpose in life have some indications to base their arguments on - while the ones that claim there is absolutely no purpose in life don't even have indications, they just have speculations! The theory of evolution is based on some fossil. And it really explains well some things in micro-level: how some species evolve and change over time. I admit that the theory of evolution really works well up to a point.
Firstly I am a scientist and my logic tells me that something of "higher essence" exists. All the indications (that I mentioned in point 2) together with my common logic "say" that to me. My conclusions are based not only on faith but on (soft) evidence and (common) logic as well. Faith is required to make the final step from the "it is possible" to "I believe this is it", but this is something common for all people and all things. There is no absolute knowledge - even scientists must have faith in something to draw a "final" conclusion. Faith it is not the only component of the things I say. And we must note that these indications also say the same thing to other scientists as well. Being a "scientist" doesn't necessarily means that you don't believe in God or in a higher purpose in life. This however is my logic - the logic of someone else may reach to a different result when having the same data.
Secondly, humans have more than one tools to reach truth. We have our feelings and our intuition. And my feelings and intuition tell me that something "higher" than us exists. If someone else have the feeling that we - humans (or some alien species we have not yet discovered) - are the highest level of spirit in the universe it is ok by me, but they have as much "hard proof" as I have. We don't know whether our logic or our feeling / intuition are better guides for the truth...Many mathematitians have used their intuition to formulate theorems that every mathematitian believes today but are still unproved...
3.1 About Faith
3.2 Faith in science
- All that exists in Universe is matter and the physical laws. We must not forget that materialism is an underlying dogma of most of todays scientists and not a truth that has been proved  (see The limits of science for more details on that science dogma).
- Belief that "Logic" works correctly: This belief is used mainly in physics, since in mathematics it has been proved that logic has flaws and inconsistencies (see Russell paradox and Godel's Incompleteness Theorem).
- Belief that all physical laws apply to the whole universe: For example we can see that gravity applies to our solar system and we believe that the same gravity applies also to galaxies we have not yet even observed).
- Belief that logic induction leads to correct conclusions: This is the basis of most modern physics. When we observe a physican phenomenon and then verify that the same phenomenon takes place in a second and a third and a fourth experiment, we conclude that the same phenomenon will occur also in the next experiment. But we cannot be sure about that. It is highly possible that we have observed the three exceptions to the rule and that all the other experiments we will conduct will result in something different.
- Belief that our senses work correctly: This is of the uttermost importance, but we insist on forgetting it. Our whole perception for the world is based on our senses. We do not know how close is the world we feel via our senses with the "real" world. Take for example the colour "red". We see "red" so we conclude that it exists. However, we forget that most animals do not see "red". So what is the "Real" thing after all? Does red exists or not?
- Belief in the fellow human: This may sound weird, but it is the basis of our scientific society. When a scientist publishes a conclusion all other scientists believe him just by trusting his/her word. If a paper is published on a scientific journal with prestige then it "must" me true. However we have seen many times scientists tampering with their data and posting fake "groundbraking" conclusions. When the historians listen to an eye-witness who says to them what has happed at a given period in time, they just trust him. If you do not test the conclusion yourself, then your belief in what the other scientists says is mostly based on the grid of human trust and only that.
- Belief that all things are measurable and that all phenomena can be reproduced in a laboratory.
- Belief that the axioms on which we base our theories are “true”. This is THE MOST IMPORTANT faith of them all! We must never forget that ALL theories are based on axioms and that NO axiom is proved! Change the axioms at will and you will end up with a different theory!
3.3 Faith Paradigm analysis
4. Misuse of Science
4.1 New scientific findings
4.2 Evolution as an accident...
Problems with the theory of evolution
In other words, theory of evolution has showed that it can be used as a tool to analyze biodiversity, but not as a tool to find the ultimate truth about everything concerning life...
Evolution theory is not falsifiable
|Preserved specimen of Latimeria chalumnae in the Natural History Museum, Vienna, Austria (length: 170 cm - weight: 60 kg). This specimen was caught on 18 October 1974, next to Salimani/Selimani (Grande Comore, Comoros Islands)|
4.3 Medicine as "inhumane"...
“Seeing something in the ultrasound equipment” is not “science”.
And surely “Seeing something in the ultrasound equipment” is not medicine.
Medicine is many things and an indication on the iU22 xMATRIX screen is in the bottom of that list…
As I stress in the "Why Medicine is NOT a pro-Science argument!" article, medicine is all about love, its all about care and compassion, its about faith.
Things which are now longtime forgotten by our "modern" "scientific" medicine...
And when we try to analyze the connection of medicine with these notions we may be startled to discover that medicine can be more "unscientific" and more" irrational" than its believers would like to admit...
Empirical observations do help, but again what do they help us about anyway? If we see outselves as machines then it is surely good that we will live 10, 20, 30 years more. But why would we want to live more? Why should we even care about that? Philosophy has not found ANY reason why health is better than sickness (see Harmonia Philosophica - Main Thesis for such irradical ideas) and we surely do not know if life is better than death in the first place! (see the same Main Thesis for more on that).
Sticking into the materialistic mechanistic view of humans will help us treat patients up to a point.
Patients need other things though.
We are all going to die.
When doctors get diagnosed with cancer, they tend NOT to use the treatments given to patients, so as to die peacefully!!! . Maybe the know something more?
When doctors go on strike, mortality rates stay the same or, more often, decrease!!! [23, 24, 25, 26] Maybe things we tend to believe are eventually wrong?!?
If we are machines, I do not know why we should even care...
Dogmas turn us dead long before we die...
|The TV is broken and I do not see any images. Does that "prove" that the TV generated those images? The problem of Consciousness needs more open minds than modern science is allowed to have...|
4.4 Consciousness, the last frontier...
Do not let dogmas into science
5. Science is driven away from humans
6. The problem of Human Progress
7. Post-Modern Philosophy
8. The Galileo case does not prove a "War" going on...
1. There were many people advocating the Copernical views many years before Galileo's case. The Catholic authorities of Galileo’s day had little trouble with heliocentrism per se. Many of the leading Catholic scientists were actually Copernicans. Copernicus’s treatise on heliocentrism had been in print for seventy years prior to Galileo’s conflict with the Church. The Church, especially, recognized no significant dividing lines between theology and science; it was all philosophy, or the quest for ultimate truth. And so, for some, if Aristotelian thought was wrong, then that might make Christianity wrong, which was unthinkable. Galileo challenged church and caused such reactions mainly because he arrogantly claimed to know the truth about "reality" and not because of his opinion.
2. The main reasons begind the church's reaction were the fact that Galileo claimed that Copernican theory was a "fact" rather than an unproved theory (while contradicting the then much better established Aristotelian physics) and the fact that Galileo claimed to be in a place to interpret Holy Scripture in a time of unrest in church matters (Reformation). The use of the Bible as a "final frontier" was not as absolute as many people think: Bellarmine said that in case the Earth is finally proved to be revolving around the Sun, then the church should be very careful with the interpretation of the Holy Bible and maybe think that they have interpreted it falsely. The fact that the church was reluctant in denouncing a very succesful and proven theory like the physics of Aristotle is not something weird: scientists today are also reluctant to change existing theories not too much evidence against it exist. Surely theories that existed and produced predictions for 1,700 years were not an easy prey for unproved theories (Galileo's telescope observations were antiphatic and not reproducable - those who did actually reperformed them, i.e. Kepler, could not draw the same exactly conclusions). A modern physicist could try to teach new alternative ways of medicine to see how "free" he is today to try new methods. Or a modern chemist could try to revolutionize the human nutrition theories and see if he finds any opposition from the established "scientific" dogmas. Or a modern biologist could try to teach anything else than the established Theory of Evolution and see if he survives one day at work... (at least the church then stated its ruling clearly and accepted the possibility of changing views) 
3. The reason behind the final punishment of Galileo was the fact that he did not hold the promise he had given to the Pope and not the scientific controversy between the heliocentric and the earthsentric systems. As simple as that. No science-religion war, no conspiracy there...
Author: Spiros Kakos
Links - Other resources
4. 'Evidence for Belief', Francis Collins.
Philosophy Knols of Spiros KakosThis article is part of a series of philosophy-related Knols I have written, which are listed below.
- Science and religion: Reconcilable differences
- The Dictionary of Philosophy, Dagobert D. Runes, Philosophical Library, USA, New York
- Purpose, Meaning & Darwinism
- Aristotelian view of God [Wikipedia article]
- Interpretation of quantum mechanics [Wikipedia article]
- Causality in Quantum Mechanics, David T. Pegg, Physics Letters A 349 (2006), Elsevier
- Causal Inference in Quantum Mechanics: A Reassessment, Mauricio Suarez, Universidad Complutense de Madrid
- A priori and a posteriori [Internet Encycopedia of Philosophy]
- A priori and a posteriori [Wikipedia]
- Types, Tableaus, and Gödel's God, Springer, Series: Trends in Logic , Vol. 12, Fitting, M., 2002, 196 p., Hardcover, ISBN: 978-1-4020-0604-3
- Sein und Zeit, Martin Heidegger (in Heidegger's Gesamtausgabe), volume 2, ed. F.-W. von Herrmann, 1977, XIV, 586p.
- Heidegger, George Steiner, Fontana Press, 1978.
- Philosophy of Mathematics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
- The Mathematical Experience, P.J. Davis and R. Hersh, Birkhauser, 1980.
- Martin Heidegger [Wikipedia article]
- Farewell to Reason, Paul K. Feyerabend, 1987, ISBN 0-86091-184-5, ISBN 0-86091-896-3.
- World Values Survey Portal
> Main articles / Κύρια άρθρα > Limits of Science > Όρια της Επιστήμης
> Religion & Science Unification > Φιλοσοφία Επιστήμης & Θρησκείας