Religion-Science Philosophy articles series
Main Thesis: Harmonia Philosophica [English] (Credo quia absurdum!!)
The limits of science
Religion and Science unification - Towards religional science
The Dark Side of Technology
The dictatorship of the science of psychiatry
The Source of Ethics
State - Science separation: Is it time?
Why you can't be an agnostic
Human Consciousness and the end of Materialism
This article presents the basic principles of ethics philosophy in an understandable way for everyone to read. From Aristotle to Kant and from Kant to post-modern philosophers, ethics is one of the most interesting subjects of philosophy that is closely related to our everyday lifes. Knowing "why" one thing is "Bad" or another is "Good" can be of great importance...
1. Introduction - Scope
2. Definitions of Ethics
3. The source of Ethics
3.1 Ethics as human nature
3.2 Ethics as "living good"
The principal idea with which Aristotle begins is that there are differences of opinion about what is best for human beings, and that to profit from ethical inquiry we must resolve this disagreement. He insists that ethics is not a theoretical discipline: we are asking what the good for human beings is not simply because we want to have knowledge, but because we will be better able to achieve our good if we develop a fuller understanding of what it is to flourish. In raising this question—what is the good?—Aristotle is not looking for a list of items that are good. He assumes that such a list can be compiled rather easily; most would agree, for example, that it is good to have friends, to experience pleasure, to be healthy, to be honored, and to have such virtues as courage at least to some degree. The difficult and controversial question arises when we ask whether certain of these goods are more desirable than others.
The "highest good"
The goal is Eudaimonia
3.3 Ethics as an "a priori" truth
The "duty" of Kant
Kant argued that there is a more foundational principle of duty that encompasses our particular duties. Kant is known for his theory that there is a single, self-evident principle of reason that he calls the "Categorical Imperative".  Categorical imperatives are principles that are intrinsically valid; they are good in and of themselves; they must be obeyed in all situations and circumstances if our behavior is to observe the moral law. It is from the Categorical Imperative that all other moral obligations are generated, and by which all moral obligations can be tested. He believed that the moral law is a principle of reason itself, and is not based on contingent facts about the world, such as what would make us happy, but to act upon the moral law which has no other motive than "worthiness of being happy". Accordingly, he believed that moral obligation applies to all and only rational agents. 
The Moral Law of God
Moral Laws as absolute truth
3.4 Ethics as selfish desires
3.5 Ethics as a creation of society
Models & Rules for deciding ethically
- Are you treating others as you would want to be treated?
- Would you be comfortable if your reasoning and decision were to be publicized?
- Would you be comfortable if your children were observing you? 
3.6 Ethics without ethical code
According to Bauman, the essence of the postmodern approach to ethics lies not in the abandoning of characteristically modern moral concerns, but in the rejection of the typically modern ways of going about its moral problems (that is, responding to moral challenges with coercive normative regulation in political practice, and the philosophical search for absolutes, universals and foundations in theory). Postmodern ethics is thus, to use Bauman’s phrase, ‘morality without ethical code’. Human reality is messy and ambiguous – and so moral decisions, unlike abstract ethical principles, are ambivalent. It is in this sort of world that we must live. Knowing that to be the truth is to be postmodern. Postmodernity, one may say, is modernity without illusions (the obverse of which is that modernity is postmodernity refusing to accept its own truth). The illusions in question boil down to the belief that the “messiness” of the human world is but a temporary and repairable state, sooner or later to be replaced by the orderly and systematic rule of reason. The truth in question is that the “messiness” will stay whatever we do or know, that the little orders and “systems” we carve out in the world are as arbitrary and in the end contingent as their alternatives.  Post-modernism surely gives a new perspective in ethics...
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Interesting Internet Resources
- Dictionary of Philosophy, Dagobert D. Runes, 1942, New York, USA
- Ethics [Wikipedia article]
- Aristotle's Ethics [Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
- Ethics [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
- Kant [Wikipedia article]
- The language of God - A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief, Francis Collins, 2007, UK.
- Mere christianity, C.S.Lewis, 1943
- Ethics in Society at Large [ethics.berkeley.edu
- Ethics Scoreboard Rule Book
- Knol - Ethics for IT Professionals: Part 1
- Ethics in the Postmodern World
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