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Religion-Science Philosophy articles series
Main Thesis: Harmonia Philosophica [English] (Credo quia absurdum!!)
The limits of science
Religion and Science unification - Towards religional science
The Dark Side of Technology
The dictatorship of the science of psychiatry
The Source of Ethics
State - Science separation: Is it time?
Why you can't be an agnostic
Human Consciousness and the end of Materialism
I. Introduction - About Science
Everywhere science is enriched by unscientific methods and unscientific results,
II. About exact science: A definition
Other fields of science
Definition of Science
III. Limitations of exact science
1. Axioms of Exact Science turn into Dogmas
We also tend to forget the main issue: Logic is based on axioms! This is what makes illogical not something "wrong" but just a different option of axioms contrary to the ones we have used so far!
An indicative list of the axioms used in the infamous "objective" Mathematical Logic (source):
These are the de facto standard axioms for contemporary mathematics or set theory. They can be easily adapted to analogous theories, such as mereology.
- Axiom of extensionality
- Axiom of empty set
- Axiom of pairing
- Axiom of union
- Axiom of infinity
- Axiom schema of replacement
- Axiom of power set
- Axiom of regularity
- Axiom schema of specification
- Axiom of choice
Other axioms of mathematical logic
- Von Neumann-Bernays-Gödel axioms
- Continuum hypothesis and its generalization
- Freiling's axiom of symmetry
- Axiom of determinacy
- Axiom of projective determinacy
- Martin's axiom
- Axiom of constructibility
- Kripke-Platek axioms
ILLOGICAL is then by definition something which does not follow these axioms.
And things would be fine if we stayed there.
However things become increasingly dogmatic when we start forgetting that we even use axioms!~
9. Time exists. People in the past may have felt that time, as Newton described it and used it, was indeed something that "exists". We think time passes. But there are more and more scientific views (see Godel and Rovelli, to start with) are in favour of the theory that time is just an illusion. If this is correct, the implications to philosophy could be icredible. And the implications to science also would be tremendous: all our ideas about motion and events is based on this elusive concept of time!     
10. The notion of "change" exists: At the time before Socrates in Greece, the idea that things "change" was a topic of discussion between philosophers and not a matter solved. How can a thing be changed without losing its identity? Perhaps things do not change eventually, said Parmenides. The cells which constitute our body as humans are changed several times during our lives. How do we know that we are who we think we are? Is there a "reality" beyond what we see? Finally the theory of Democritus and Leukippos (according to which things are changing) prevailed over the theory of Parmenides, and that has defined profoundly our scientific thinking ever since. Is that what is actually happening though? 
[See the Harmonia Philosophica at Knol or at Blogspot for the implications the non-existence of "time" and "change" could have to the main issue that troubles people from the very start of their existence: Death]
Hubble let many of his philosophical beliefs guide his conclusions...
See Earth is at the Center of the Universe? for more on that
The dogmas of science are practically endless. Rupert Sheldrake pinpointed a few more in his lecture “The Science Delusion” (see here). An indicative list of dogmas I have collected over the years follows:
- Everything is matter
- Matter is unconscious
- Laws of nature stay the same. For now and for ever, this is what we have. Except of course from the moment of the Big Bang when all those laws were created. It is like the joke which states “Give us one free miracle and we’ll explain the rest”. The miracle in this case is the sudden creation of all matter, energy and fixed laws of the Universe in an instant. Hehehe...
- The sum of matter and energy stays the same. (that is, except from when a huge mass and energy was created out of nowhere in the Big Bang)
- Nature’s purposelessness
- What humans inherit from their parents are material (everything is in the genes)
- Memories are in the brain (even though noone knows how it works) [and despite the evidence we have against this idea, I would add - see "memory" and "mind" in Harmonia Philosophica]
- Your mind is inside your head
- Psychic phenomena (like telepathy) are not possible, despite the evidence against that view
- Mechanistic medicine is the only medicine that works. No alternative theories exist.
- Occam's razor: Why should the most simple solution be the correct one? If the real solution is complicated, we will never find it... (see here)
- Balance is inherently natural. But why even think about that? Keeping balance requires much effort. (see here)
- Viruses come from the "outside". But how many know that there are theories which postulate that viruses could come from within? (read here)
- It is impossible to achieve >100% efficiency in thermal machines. Really? (read discussion here)
- The observed exists. But how many of us have considered that thinking about the observed precedes the observation? (see here)
2. Exact sciences cannot measure
3. Main limitations of scientific tools
4. Mathematics cannot spell numbers
5. Exact science does not understand reality
For example, things fall on the Earth. That is the reality. We sense that reality with our eyes and "see" apples fall onto the soil. We then try to explain what we see by formulating the theory of gravity. Many people think that since apples fall due to the theory of gravity and that since we see the apples, then the theory of gravity "exists". That is not correct: when the theory of gravity is proven wrong and replaced by another theory (that is happening all the time with all scientific theories), apples will continue to fall! Our theory, our interpretation of what we sense, will have changed, but that would have no effect whatsoever to the thing we call "reality". Another example is the invention of the transistor. The transistor works as the modern theories of physics say. However when all these theories are replaced by totally new ones, the transistor will continue to work...
IV. Failures of exact science
V. Success of exact science
VI. Conclusions - Going forward
- 'Dissent Over Descent', Steve Fuller.
- Dictionary of Philosophy, Dagobert D. Runes, 1942, New York.
- Eliminative Materialism, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
- Physicalism, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
- Materialism's Slipping Hold on Science and Culture, Bruce Chapman, Seattle P-I, 1997
- Does Science Need Religion?, prof. Roger Trigg, Warwick University
- Mediocrity Principle [Wikipedia]
- Copernican Principle [Wikipedia]
/archives/index.php? option=com_awiki&vie w=mediawiki&article= User:Delta_x
- Quotes of dogma from "The Observational Approach to Cosmology": (1) http://nedwww.ipac.c
altech.edu/level5/Se pt04/Hubble/Hubble3_ 2.html, (2) http://nedwww.ipac.c altech.edu/level5/Se pt04/Hubble/Hubble3_ 4.html, (3) http://nedwww.ipac.c altech.edu/level5/Se pt04/Hubble/Hubble3_ 6.html
The Observational Approach to Cosmology, Edwin Hubble, 1937, p. 50, 51 & 58.
- Science or God?, John Polkinghorne, Editions Travlos, Athens, 1996, p. 138.
- Farewell to Reason, Paul K. Feyerabend, Editions Ekkremes, Athens, 2002, p. 261.
- Letter to Besso, cited by Carl Seelig, Albert Einstein, Zurich, 1954, p. 195.
- Great Feuds in Mathematics: Ten of the Liveliest Disputes Ever, Hal Hellman, Alexandreia publications, Athens, 2010.
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