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Religion-Science Philosophy articles series
Main Thesis: Harmonia Philosophica [English] (Credo quia absurdum!!)
The limits of science
Religion and Science unification - Towards religional science
Evolution and Intelligent Design - The way to an agreement
The Dark Side of Technology
The dictatorship of the science of psychiatry
Earth at the Center of the Universe?
The Source of Ethics
State - Science separation: Is it time?
Why you can't be an agnostic
Human Consciousness and the end of Materialism
Introduction - Scope
Why neuroscience will never explain consciousness
1. Finding the correlation of brain and mind does not mean we found the cause of the existence of mind or consciousness
2. Neuroscience seems to explain only things defined in functional terms. Consciousness cannot be given a functional definition so it cannot be neuroscientifically explained
Many neurons form a set of "many neurons".
3. No matter how good the correlations of brain to mind are, they could never literally be "mind"
Water comes from pipes (correlation).
If the water pipes are damaged, there is less or no water.
Yet the pipes do not generate water. Water is not identical to a property of the pipes.The pipes are conduits of water.
Likewise the brain is a conduit of consciousness. 
4. Self-consciousness feels like more than the sum of its cells (or why reductionism is wrong or why neurobiology does not explain the qualitative properties of consciousness)
emergent properties and functions of the brain,
other emergent property and function in nature.”
Another problem stated by David Chalmers (1995) is that while cognitive neuroscience can explain how the brain enables informational processing of the mind, it is incapable of explaining the qualitative experience that accompanies it, nor the mere fact that it does. No matter what knowledge we gain about the visual processing of colour and how precicely we are able to describe it, the quality of sensory experience of red cannot be known unless experienced. As ancient Sufi would say about coffee: “He who tastes, knows; he who tastes not, knows not”. 
5. Arguments in favor of Dualism
5.1 Near-Death Experiences (NDE)
5.2 Possible explanation of dualism
In a few words, dualism has much less to account for than materialism. As Keith Ward said, unlike materialism, what dualism doesn’t have to do, is explain away the experience of every human being... [source] We are something that we all understand it to be something more than a sum of voltage or particles moving. And that is the best argument in favour of a more different view than pure materialism is...
Function has many definitions
William James argued that all the problems arise from the monolithic way in which we understand the function of the brain. Materialistic science - he said - can think of the brain function only in the "function that produces something" way. However "function" can have other meanings as well. Many things function in a way to "allow things to happen", like when your hand pulls a trigger so as to remove the barrier holding the gun to go oof. Function could also mean "function to allow transmittion of things", like a coloured glass the function of which is to allow the transmission of light through it. The brain could act in one of the other two ways of "function", thus being simply a way to allow souls to manifest themselfs in this world. A very interesting theory indeed. Especially if one takes into account that it is true that modern science has a very frightening way to impose specific definitions on things which can be defined in many other ways...
5.3 Consciousness and Quantum Mechanics
Illustrative paper for the role of consciousness in the collapse of the wavefunction.
It seems that consciousness actually causes the electron to "decide" and that is something one cannot ignore. People I talk with about quantum mechanics just state that "Wigner's interpretation is outdated". But when I ask them why, I get silense for response... I do not claim of course that this is the ultimate and final solution to the measurement problem. However I do not stand listening to people who just reject specific interpretation simple because they do not fit to their beliefs...
5.4 Zombie arguments for dualismIt must be said that many other arguments exist in favour of dualism. They are all related to the thing we "feel" every day: that we "are" ourselfs and not a set of machinery working. Our brain is not a set of electrons, because a set of electrons is just "a set of electrons", not a thinking entity...
We are not zombies, we are thinking human beings doing more than just feeling and reacting according to physical laws without being conscious of what we do.
Possible sources for such arguments:
If physicalism was right and if indeed everything we did could be explained by the action-reaction mechanistical model of our body, then there would be no room for what we feel and "know" that we have: that "thing" which makes us humans, that "thing" which makes us something more than simple zombies...
However we know that we do not just react to things like zombies.
We know that we do not just live according to automated processes and physical laws.
We know that we are who we are.
I know that I am "I" who speaks and not the physical laws governing the electrons in my brain.
I know that I am the one writting now and not the physical laws governing the universe...
I know that I have free will and that what I write here is "mine" (and not product of a machine in the form of a human body with no intellect or consciousness), as you know that what I write here is "mine" and you will write a comment to "me" complaining about what I wrote...
6. There is more than explaining things bottom-up
Systematic neuroscientific study of the power of the mind has shown that “the results of these [neuroimaging] studies strongly supports the view that the subjective nature and intentional content…of mental processes (e.g. thoughts, feelings, beliefs, volition) significantly influence the functioning and plasticity of the brain…mentalistic variables have to be seriously taken into account to reach a correct understanding of the neurophysiological bases of behavior in humans.”  
In other words, the mind can affect the brain and vice versa.
such self-directed brain changes—neuroplasticity—are a genuine reality...
In other words, the arrow of causation relating brain and mind must be bidirectional.”
Other problems addressed by mind-based therapies, verified by brain-scans include:
(1) Depression and sadness.
(2) Tourette’s syndrome.
(3) Stroke rehabilitation.
(4) Focal hand dystonia.
(6) Panic disorder.
(7) Spider phobia.
(8) Stress reduction.
(9) Follow up care for cancer patients.
Materialism is the underlying dogma of modern neuroscience optimism that it will explain everything concerning the human mind
philosophy of mind is obviously false….[I]n the philosophy of mind,
obvious facts about the mental, such as that we all really do have subjective
conscious mental states…are routinely denied by many… of the advanced thinkers in the subject.”
All contemporary Neuroscience is based on classical Physics. No surprise that it derives a view of the brain as a set of mechanical laws: that is the "only" view that classical Physics can derive. No surprise that it cannot explain how consciousness arises, since there is no consciousness in classical Physics: it was erased from the study of matter by Descartes' dualism (that mind and matter are separate), on which foundations Newton erected classical Physics (the science of matter, which does not deal with mind). By definition, Descartes' dualism predicts that mind cannot be explain from matter, and Newton's Physics is an expression of dualism. Which means that dualism predicts that Newton's Physics cannot explain mind. Neuroscientists who are looking for consciousness miss that simple syllogism: they are looking for consciousness using a tool that is labeled "this tool does not deal with consciousness". 
Many scientists today presume materialism will provide the right answers prior to investigating the facts. Are they open to following the evidence wherever it leads? 
Some materialists admit that Materialism cannot be shown to be valid a priori.
Instead, they claim that Materialism has had such an impressive track-record in solving problems, we should assume it will continue to succeed.
But Materialism does not have such an impressive track-record:
- Christian theology, not materialism, gave birth to modern science. Great scientists such as Newton, Kepler and Galileo tried to find the physical laws governing the universe in an attempt to unravel God's master plan of the cosmos...
- Materialism conflicts with the rationality of science: The dogma "in the beginning there was nothing, nothing created something and now we have only some electorns and protons moving around randomly" cannot explain the existence of all-powerful universal physical laws.
- Theism supports the rationality of science: The existence of universal physical laws can be explained by the theory of a First Cause or a great Designer.
- The failure of materialism to account for the mind is one of the most staggering examples of how dogmas can hinder the progress of science if we fail to see them. 
- Artificial Intelligence was supposed to deliver translating programs, robots that can interact freely with humans under any conditions and General Problem Solving algorithms. It has failed in all these, despite the initial optimist, which proved to be false. Even though computers can roughly translate very specific technical documents, they fail to comprehend the simplest of human dialogues... 
It is skeptical of any idea that spirituality corresponds to
anything outside ourselves, but surprisingly gullible about any reductionist explanation of it.”
- The Language of Science – Consciousness, Jakob Hohwy, Department of Philosophy, Monash University
- Can Brain Explain Mind?, Dr. Robert Lawrence Kuhn
- Ramachandran on Consciousness, Jonah Lehrer
- Neuroscience, Consciousness, and the Soul, Craig Hamilton
- Does Neuroscience Leave Room for God?, Dr. Angus J. L. Menuge, Concordia University Wisconsin ()
- Cognitive neuroscience and the "Mind-Body problem", Grega Repovs, University of Ljubljana, Department of psychology, Ljubljana, Slovenia
- Richard Lewontin, “Billions and Billions of Demons,” review of The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark by Carl Sagan, New York Review of Books, January 9, 1997, pp. 28-32.
- Quantum Consciousness, Piero Scaruffi
- Mind does really matter: evidence from neuroimaging studies of emotional self-regulation, psychotherapy, and placebo effect, Beauregard M., Prog Neurobiol. 2007 Mar;81(4):218-36. Epub 2007 Feb 9. Review, PMID: 17349730 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
- Early Work in AI, by Eyal Reingold and Johnathan Nightingale
- Measurement in quantum mechanics [Wikipedia article]
- Consciousness causes collapse [Wikipedia article]
- Human Immortality: Two Supposed Objections to the Doctrine (the Ingersoll Lecture, 1897), William James
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